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Question 1.


Distinguish (point out the difference) between soft tissue and hard tissue injuries using examples to clarify your answer.



Soft tissue injuries are caused by damage to muscle, ligaments, tendons and skin.  For example a sprained ankle, cut or bruise.


Hard Tissue injuries invlove structures like bones and teeth, for example a fracture or knocked out tooth.


The key to this answer is distinguish - you have explained by giving a definition and a clear example.


Question 2


Compare and contrast a direct and an indirect injury using examples to clarify your answer.



Direct injuties are caused by extrinsic forces generated by an object or person that results in damage to the athlete. An example of a direct injury is a dislocated finger when catching a ball in cricket, or a broken collar bone when tackling an opponent in rugby.


Indirect injuries are caused by intrinsic forces (inside the body) that damages surrounding tissue. An example is when a long jumpeer/high jumper is running and takes excessively long strides, resulting in strain causing tissue damage and possible tearing of the hamstring or groin. Another example is twisting the ankle when playing basketball, resulting in a sprained ankle.


Again the key is compare and contrast. You should compare the types of injuries but use examples to point out their differences (contast).


Question 3


Using examples to explain how intrinsic and extrinsic forces cause different types of injuries.


Intrinsic injuries are generally muscle tears, ligament strains, tendonitis and stress fractures.  They may be acute e.g a sudden and sharp turn in a tackle or they may be chronic  due to repeated stress and insufficient to time to recover. Examples include Tennis elbow and shin splints.  These forces are within the athletes body.



Extrinsic injuries can be more severe and extensive which may include both hard and soft tissue.  Examples may include damage to the joints such as the knee, ankle and back as a result of ice skating or being struck when playing ice hockey.  The forces that cause these injuries are external but, due to other factors such as the athlets skating technique (their movement) and whether the initial foces bring other forces into play (such as the impact of falling) there may be a chance of multiple injuries from a number of sources.



Soft Tissue Injuries


Question 4.


Explain the difference between a sprain and a strain injury.


A sprain is the stretching or tearing of a ligament whereas a strain is the stretching or tearing of a muscle or tendon.



Question 5.

The inflammatory response has three stages. Identify the key characteristics for each stage.


Pahse 1 is the inflammatory stage initially after the injury has taken place and is characterised by pain and swelling, loss of mobility, increased blood flow to the area, and fluid leakage in the areas which causes swelling.


Phase 2 is the repair stage and is characterised by removal of debris, formation of muscle fibres, production of scar tissue, and reduced swelling ( if treated correctly).


Phase 3 is the remodelling stage and exhibits replacement of scar tissue with directional or functional tissue, reduced swelling, and regaining some function and movement.


Question 6.

Examine why it is crucial to follow the HARM principle when an injury has taken place.


HARM stands for 4 procedures or substances which will cause further damage to the injury if they are allowed to occur.


Heat is detrimental to injuries in the first 48 hrs as it encourages blood flow and will contribute to bleeding and swelling in the area as the fluids pool.

Alcohol is a diuretic (dehydrates and increases urination) and will result in further swelling in the area.

Running refers to movement, which may cause further damage.

Massage is not encouraged in the first 72 hrs after the intial injury as it may cause further damage to tissue or bleeding.


Therefore to prevent or minimise further injury these 4 points should be avaoided to maximise recovery from the injury.



Question 7.

Discuss why immobilisation is important when dealing with hard tissue injuries.


Immobilisation is important in the treatment of hard tissue injuries for a number of reasons. By immobilising the injured area further injury to the bone and surrounding tissue is prevented. Immobilisation reduces the amount of bleeding and swelling, and potentially reduces the amount of pain for the patient as it prevents grating or aggravating nerve endings at the site of the fracture. Additionally it will reduce the chances of the patient experiencing shock.


Question 8.

What does TOTAPS stand for?


TOTAPS is an acronym for talk, observe,touch, active movement, passive movement and skills test used to assess an injuries athlete and the severity of the injury.


Question 9.

Explain how TOTAPS can be used to prevent further injury if a soccer player has been injured whilst tackling an opponent.


 When a soccer player is injured during a tackle, the TOTAPS proceduce is utilised to findoutthe extent of the injury.

Talk: the assessor would ask what happened and what hurts, inorder to identify the part of the body injured and the symptoms of the athlete. Once completed the assessor could observe the injury for noticable deformity and swellig then gently touch the area to identify the exact site of the injury and further swelling and deformity.  If at this stage there was minimal damage the assessor could ask the athlete to move their leg by themselves, which is active movement.  Then the assessor could move he injured area (passive movement), performing joint movements to identify instability and painful areas.  Finally the assessor could ask the athlete to perform a skills test, involving movements that are specific to the game for example a sidestep or jump. If at any stage the injury is excessively painful or the athlete seems uncoordinated, the palyer should seek medical treatment for a GP.



 Sports Policy and sports environment


Question 10.

List the benefits of rules in sport.  

Rules in sport benefit the game, players, officials, spectators, supporters and sponsors in the following ways.

  • Rules set guidelines for all participants
  • They assist the flow of play
  • They create a fair and safe environment, thus protecting players from injury e.g. head high tackles in rugby.
  • They also ensure that all players are aware of the potential disciplinary action that may take place as a reault of breaking the rules either accidently or on purpose.


Question 11.

Outline six modified rules for children in sport and identify an advantage of each.

Modified rules for children include the following aspects:

  • Reducing the dimensions of the fields to reduce level of exhertion.
  • Non-contesting scrums in rugby league and union to protect the necks of players
  • Reducing ring heights in basketball and netball to increase level of success in players
  • Modified equipment and distances in athletics to encourage participation and success.
  • Modified cricket balls and lighter bats to promote safety
  • Ulimited substitutions in team sports to encourage greater participation and allow players to rest more to prevent fatigue and injury.

Note each point gave an example and was then supported by a reason.


Question 12.

Identify the implications for officials creating a competition where children compete in age categories rather than weight in contact sports.

 Advantages of age-based competitions are that they are easily organised and allow peers to interact on a similar social level. Also skill development may noit match size or weight and therefore age-based competitions may allow for more balanced competition.


However, officialls needs to recognise that children of the same age can be vastly different in maturation levels e.g one child 85 kg and the other 40kg but of the same age.  This is especially evident during the onset of puberty and the development of adult characteristics early (eg muscle development). In contact sports this can lead to an increase in injuries due to the mismatch. Supporting the idea that a number of competitions need to be structured by weight rather than age.



Question 13.

You have organised an thletics carnival for the local primary school students. Outline preventative strategies and rules you would enforce to maximise safe participation.

There are a number of strategies that may be implemented to ensure a safe athletics carnival.  These include the following:

  • The organiser of the canival needs to be aware of the weather conditions and have contingency plans if the weather turns.
  • The oval should be inspected prior and on the day for potential hazards.
  • Fencing should be places around events to prevent spectators from entering restricted areas.
  • Officials are instructed about safety protocol, use of equipment and duty of care.
  • Qualified first aid attendants and first aid kit available, as well as shaded area with water and ice.
  • Marshals and officals assist with crowd control of stuednts and parents
  • Announcer should make clear instructions through out the day.
  • All participatns partake in proper warm-up and stretching prior to compeition and cool-down routines post competition to prevent injury.


Question 14.

Outline what the term thermoregualtion means and explain how it takes place.

The term thermoregulation refers to the regulation of body temperature through various methods with the aim of maintaining the body's core themperature at 36 degrees Celsius. Thermoregualtion occurs by a negative feedback responseas the body reacts to changes in the environment. If the body becomes too hot (hypothermia) or too cold (hypothermia) he hypothalamus will initate mechanisims to cool or heat the body accordingly.  Examples of these mechanisims include shivering when the core body temp drops and sweating when the body becomes too hot.

Question 15.

Describe how convection, conduction, radiation and evaporation may be used to allow an athlete to perform in hot and cold environments.

Through the process of convection, conduction, radiation and evaporation athletes are able to regualtate their core body termperature. In HOT climates the athlete can lose heat through evaporation of sweat on the skin (this is reduced in humditity); by radiation as the heat of the body radiates into the surrounding environment; conduction when in contact with cooler objects e.g ice packs; and through convectionas air passes of the surface of the skin, aiding in heat loss.  These 4 mechanisims help prevent hyperthermia whcih could lead to heat stroke. To minimise heating the athlete needs to wear clothing that releases sweat and heat.


In cold environments the athlete can minimise heat loss from the body.  Radiation and convection can be minimised by wearing approrpiate thermal clothing, which will reduce loss of heat and prevent exposure to cold air.  Evaporation can be reduced by wearing clothing that absobs sweat and therfore reduces the evaporative cooling process. Alos use of thermal (heat) packs can increase core body temperature and reduce the chances of hypothermia.





Question 16.

Describe the steps involved in taping an ankle to prevent injury using the following headings.

1. Anchors

Apply 2 anchors, with the second anchor overlapping the first by half.

2. Stirrups

Start with the foot dorsiflexed and everted.  Using rigid tape, start on the medial side of the anchor and come down over the ankle under the heel,  Pull up and apply tension as you attach the tape to the lateral side of the anchors.

3. Reinforcement and support

Start on the anchor on the medial side, run underneath the fat pad of the ffot to the outside edge of the heel, then up across the instep, and join on the starting down strip. Figure sixes and heel locks can be used.

4. Closing down

 Do 2 0r 3 laps overlapping the last.


Question 17.

Outline the advantages of using preventative taping prior to exercise.

Preventative taping is used to strengthen or support areas during physical activity.  It is particularly useful in sport that have components of agility, speed and strength. The tape itself may be either adhesive or non-adhesive.  The tape may be used as a preventative measure or as protection for an existing injury.


How is injury rehabilitation managed?  

Question 18.

Outline the key features of progressive mobilisation.

Progressive muscular mobilisation is a rehabilitation techniaue used to help athletes return to play after injury as quickly as possible.  The technique involves both passively and actively exercising a strained muscle, tendon or ligament.  The early mobilisation helps tissues to heal in the desired direction and minimises the amount of scar tissue.  By gradually increasing exercise intentisty, the athlete increases the strength and flexibility of the tissue, while reducing the chances of a reoccurance of the initial injury.  To achieve the desired outcome specific exercises are used which usually involve stretching, isometric strengethening, basic skills, game skills, and full training leading to resumption of competition.



Question 19.

Describe graduated exercise which is essential before returing to competition after injury.




  I will put the example answers up on Friday the 17th Feb, 2012.

Enjoy the first week back of term :) 1/2 yearly exams will be at the end of this term so start revisiong for each subject now - not the day before the exam. 

Remember you are all wonderful and capable but  will only achieve outstanding results if you apply yourself :) Air Sacs Always!!!